Our team studied how COVID vaccines and other technologies were rapidly developed and brought to society, to identify in particular the role of IP protection. Our sources were media reporting, reports, and relevant academic literature. We also interviewed a number of senior executives at bio-pharmaceutical companies that were involved in the COVID response. We endeavored to tell the innovation stories of as many of the COVID vaccines and therapeutics as possible in our report. Our research effort generated an extensive bibliography, which is presented and searchable in the References section below. We are grateful to IFPMA and Interpat for funding this research effort.