The rapid innovation response to COVID-19 and the role of IP


Our team studied how COVID vaccines and other technologies were rapidly developed and brought to society, to identify in particular the role of IP protection. Our sources were media reporting, reports, and relevant academic literature. We also interviewed a number of senior executives at bio-pharmaceutical companies that were involved in the COVID response.  We endeavored to tell the innovation stories of as many of the COVID vaccines and therapeutics as possible in our report. Our research effort generated an extensive bibliography, which is presented and searchable in the References section below. We are grateful to IFPMA and Interpat for funding this research effort.


  1. ​Abbott. “Testing Remains Critical First-Line of COVID-19 Defense.” Accessed July 30, 2021.
  2. “About the Oxford COVID-19 Vaccine,” July 19, 2020.
  3. Abu Zaid, Mohammed. “Egypt Signs Agreement to Receive 20 Million AstraZeneca Doses.” Arab News, January 24, 2021.
  4. “‘Act Now’ on Global Vaccines to Stop More-Dangerous Variants, Experts Warn Biden.” Washington Post. Accessed September 1, 2021.
  5. Aleccia, Jonel. “The Hype Has Faded, but Don’t Count Out Convalescent Plasma in Covid Battle.” KHN News, 2021.
  6. Ammerman, Nicole C., Magda Beier-Sexton, and Abdu F. Azad. “Growth and Maintenance of Vero Cell Lines.” Current Protocols in Microbiology APPENDIX (November 2008): Appendix-4E.
  7. Andersen, Petter I., Aleksandr Ianevski, Hilde Lysvand, Astra Vitkauskiene, Valentyn Oksenych, Magnar Bjørås, Kaidi Telling, et al. “Discovery and Development of Safe-in-Man Broad-Spectrum Antiviral Agents.” International Journal of Infectious Diseases 93 (April 1, 2020): 268–76.
  8. Anderson, Maia. “Dosage Mistakes Delay Sanofi, GSK Vaccine Trial,” December 14, 2020.
  9. Arthur, Rachel. “Pfizer and BioNTech Ramp up COVID-19 Vaccine Production to 2.5 Billion Doses.”, March 31, 2021.
  10. “AstraZeneca Advances Response to Global COVID-19 Challenge as It Receives First Commitments for Oxford’s Potential New Vaccine.” Accessed July 16, 2021.
  11. “AstraZeneca and Government of Canada Announce Agreement to Supply up to 20 Million Doses of the AZD1222 COVID-19 Vaccine,” September 25, 2020.
  12. “AstraZeneca Concludes Agreement for Supply of AZD1222 COVID-19 Vaccine to Switzerland,” October 16, 2020.
  13. “AstraZeneca Receives $1.2 Billion BARDA Contract for COVID-19 Vaccine,” May 22, 2020.
  14. Australian Government Department of Health. “Australia’s Vaccine Agreements,” May 26, 2021.
  15. Balfour, Hannah. “Russia to Supply Mexico with 32 Million Doses of Sputnik V.” European Pharmaceutical Review, October 9, 2020. per cent20will per cent20receive per cent20a per cent20supply per cent20of per cent2032 per cent20million,of per cent20population per cent20the per cent20Mexican per cent20population per cent20to per cent20be per cent20vaccinated.
  16. Barone, Emily, and Lon Tweeten. “How Remdesivir Works to Fight COVID-19 Inside the Body.” Time, May 27, 2020. How Remdesivir Works to Fight COVID-19 Inside,Tiny particles in the host cell per cent2C... More.
  17. Beigel, John H., Kay M. Tomashek, Lori E. Dodd, Aneesh K. Mehta, Barry S. Zingman, Andre C. Kalil, Elizabeth Hohmann, et al. “Remdesivir for the Treatment of Covid-19 — Final Report.” New England Journal of Medicine, 2020.
  18. “Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority,” May 27, 2021.
  19. BioNTech. “BioNTech: Be Unique, Treat Individualized.” Accessed July 28, 2021.
  20. BioPharm International Editors. “GRAM Partners with Johnson & Johnson for Fill/Finish of Vaccine Candidate.” BioPharm International, September 28, 2020.
  21. Blankenship, Kyle. “AstraZeneca Pledges $174M to Ramp up Coronavirus Vaccine Supply Deal with Emergent.” FiercePharma, July 27, 2020.
  22. Blankenship, Kyle. “AstraZeneca Will Work with Mexico, Argentina to Produce COVID-19 Vaccine Doses.” FiercePharma, August 13, 2020.
  23. Bourla, Albert. “An Open Letter from Pfizer Chairman and CEO to Colleagues | Pfpfizeruscom.” Accessed July 28, 2021.
  24. “Brazil to Start Manufacturing of Russia’s Sputnik V Vaccine This Week - Times of Middle East,” January 12, 2021.
  25. Buntz, Brian. “A Quick History of the Tech behind J&J, AstraZeneca’s COVID-19 Vaccines.” Drug Discovery and Development, April 16, 2021.
  26. Burger, Ludwig, and Caroline Copley. “BioNTech to Build MRNA Vaccine Manufacturing Site in Singapore.” Reuters, May 10, 2021.
  27. BusinessWire. “McKesson Begins Distributing the Johnson & Johnson COVID-19 Vaccine,” March 1, 2021.
  28. Cadila, Zydus. “Zydus Launches RemdacTM (Remdesivir) for the Treatment of COVID 19 in India,” 2020. Remdac-13082020.pdf.
  29. Chamary, JV. “The Strange Story Of Remdesivir, A Covid Drug That Doesn’t Work.” Forbes, 2021.
  30. “Cipla Launches Cipremi (Remdesivir Lyophilised Powder for Injection 100 Mg), the Only U.S. FDA Approved Emergency Use Authorisation (EUA) Treatment for Patients with Severe COVID-19 Disease.” Cipla Press Release, June 21, 2021.
  31. Cohen, Jon. “Merck, One of Big Pharma’s Biggest Players, Reveals Its COVID-19 Vaccine and Therapy Plans.” Science | AAAS, May 26, 2020.
  32. Cohen, Jon, and Kai Kupferschmidt. “The ‘Very, Very Bad Look’ of Remdesivir, the First FDA-Approved COVID-19 Drug.” Science Magazine, 2020.
  33. Cold Spring Harbor Labouratory. “Adenovirus: After 40 Years, a Call to Arms,” May 21, 2021.
  34. Corum, Jonathan, and Carl Zimmer. “How Bharat Biotech’s Vaccine Works.” The New York Times, January 4, 2021, sec. Health.
  35. Corum, Jonathan, and Carl Zimmer. “How Moderna’s Vaccine Works.” The New York Times, May 7, 2021, sec. Health.
  36. Corum, Jonathan, and Carl Zimmer. “How the Johnson & Johnson Vaccine Works.” The New York Times, July 5, 2021, sec. Health.
  37. Content Lab U.S. “Johnson & Johnson Announces Collaboration with the Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center to Accelerate COVID-19 Vaccine Development | Johnson & Johnson,” March 13, 2020.
  38. Content Lab U.S. “Johnson & Johnson Announces European Commission Approval for Janssen’s Preventive Ebola Vaccine | Johnson & Johnson,” January 7, 2020.
  39. Couronne, Ivan. “Pre-Orders of COVID-19 Vaccine Top Five Billion.” Medical Press, 2020.
  40. “COVID-19 PROGRAM UPDATE World Vaccine Congress,” 2021.
  41. “COVID-19 Vaccine Doses Shipped by the COVAX Facility Head to Ghana, Marking Beginning of Global Rollout,” February 24, 2021.
  42. Crow, David. “How MRNA Became a Vaccine Game-Changer.” Financial Times, May 13, 2021.
  43. Cucinotta, Domenico, and Maurizio Vanelli. “WHO Declares COVID-19 a Pandemic.” Acta Bio-Medica: Atenei Parmensis 91, no. 1 (March 19, 2020): 157–60.
  44. CureVac. “CureVac Provides Update on Phase 2b/3 Trial of First-Generation COVID-19 Vaccine Candidate, CVnCoV,” June 16, 2021.
  45. Daily, Science. “‘Broad Spectrum’ Antiviral Fights Multitude of Viruses.” Science Daily, n.d.
  46. David, Dharshini. “Covid: The Vaccine Patent Row Explained.” BBC News, May 6, 2021, sec. Business.
  47. Dougan, Michael, Ajay Nirula, Masoud Azizad, Bharat Mocherla, Robert L. Gottlieb, Peter Chen, Corey Hebert, et al. “Bamlanivimab plus Etesevimab in Mild or Moderate Covid-19.” New England Journal of Medicine, July 14, 2021.
  48. Dougherty, Elizabeth. “Novartis Joins Pharma-Wide Effort to Meet Global Demand for COVID-19 Vaccines.” Novartis, March 22, 2021.
  49. Douglass, John Aubrey. “Who Owns Covid Vaccine Intellectual Property?” LA Progressive (blog), March 1, 2021.
  50. Duan, Kai, Bende Liu, Cesheng Li, Huajun Zhang, Ting Yu, Jieming Qu, Min Zhou, et al. “Effectiveness of Convalescent Plasma Therapy in Severe COVID-19 Patients.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 117, no. 17 (2020): 9490–96.
  51. Dunleavy, Kevin. “Merck Plant in Durham, N.C. Gets $105M to Upgrade for J&J Vaccine Production.” FiercePharma, November 3, 2021.
  52. Dutta, Sanchari Sinha. “What Are Adenovirus-Based Vaccines?”, September 17, 2020.
  53. Dutta, Sanchari Sinha. “What Is an Antibody Titer?”, July 2, 2020.
  54. Dyer, Owen. “Covid-19: Remdesivir Has Little or No Impact on Survival, WHO Trial Shows.” BMJ, 2020.
  55. Eastman, Richard T., Jacob S. Roth, Kyle R. Brimacombe, Anton Simeonov, Min Shen, Samarjit Patnaik, and Matthew D. Hall. “Remdesivir: A Review of Its Discovery and Development Leading to Emergency Use Authorization for Treatment of COVID-19.” ACS Central Science 6, no. 5 (2020): 672–83.
  56. European Medicines Agency. “COVID-19 Treatments.” Text. European Medicines Agency, February 18, 2021.
  57. European Medicines Agency. “EMA Issues Advice on Use of Regdanvimab for Treating COVID-19.” Text, March 26, 2021.
  58. European Medicines Agency. “EMA Review of Regdanvimab for COVID-19 to Support National Decisions on Early Use.” Text, March 2, 2021.
  59. Farrugia, Albert, and Patrick Robert. “Plasma Protein Therapies: Current and Future Perspectives.” Best Practice & Research. Clinical Haematology 19, no. 1 (2006): 243–58.
  60. FDA. “Convalescent Plasma EUA Letter of Authorization 06032021,” 2021.
  62. FDA. “FDA In Brief: FDA Updates Emergency Use Authorization for COVID-19 Convalescent Plasma to Reflect New Data.” FDA in Brief, 2021.
  63. FDA. “Frequently Asked Questions on the Emergency Use Authorization for Bamlanivimab and Etesevimab,” May 19, 2021.
  64. FDA. “Frequently Asked Questions on the Emergency Use Authorization for Olumiant (Baricitinib) in Combination with Veklury (Remdesivir) for Treatment of Mild to Moderate COVID-19,” November 19, 2021.
  65. FDA. “Frequently Asked Questions on the Emergency Use Authorization of REGEN-COV (Casirivimab and Imdevimab),” June 4, 2021.
  66. FDA. “Frequently Asked Questions on the Emergency Use Authorization of Sotrovimab,” May 26, 2021.
  67. Finch, Hannah. “The Factories Making AstraZeneca, Pfizer and Other Covid-19 Vaccine in the UK.” Business Live, January 27, 2021.
  68. “First Subunit Viral Vaccine in U.S. | History of Vaccines.” Accessed July 28, 2021.
  69. Fischman Afori, Orit, Miriam Marcowitz-Bitton, and Emily Michiko Morris. “A Global Pandemic Remedy to Vaccine Nationalism.” SSRN Scholarly Paper. Rochester, NY: Social Science Research Network, April 19, 2021.
  70. Foley, Katherine Ellen. “What Is the Novavax Vaccine, and How Does It Work?” MSN, 2020.
  71. Fragoulis, George E, Iain B McInnes, and Stefan Siebert. “JAK-Inhibitors. New Players in the Field of Immune-Mediated Diseases, beyond Rheumatoid Arthritis.” Rheumatology 58, no. Supplement_1 (February 1, 2019): i43–54.
  72. GAO Biomedical Research. “Information on Federal Contributions to Remdesivir,” n.d.
  73. Garde, Damian and Jonathan Saltzman. “The Story of MRNA: From a Loose Idea to a Tool That May Help Curb Covid.” STAT, November 10, 2020.
  74. Garland, Max. “FedEx Shipping Johnson & Johnson’s COVID-19 Vaccine, Entering Network via Memphis Hub.” The Commercial Appeal, January 3, 2021.
  75. Gaviria, Mario, and Burcu Kilic. “A Network Analysis of COVID-19 MRNA Vaccine Patents.” Nature Biotechnology 39, no. 5 (May 2021): 546–48.
  76. “Messenger RNA (MRNA),” 2021.
  77. Ghosh, Asis. “MRNA COVID Vaccines May Be a Better Platform than Traditional Adenovirus Vaccines.” iForex, September 12, 2020.
  78. Gilead. “DEVELOPMENT OF REMDESIVIR,” 2020.
  79. Gilead. “European Commission Grants Conditional Marketing Authorization for Gilead’s Veklury® (Remdesivir) for the Treatment of COVID-19.” Gilead Press Release, 2020.
  80. Gilead. “Gilead Sciences Statement on Request to Rescind Remdesivir Orphan Drug Designation.” Gilead Press Release, 2020.
  81. Gilead. “Gilead Sciences Statement on The World Health Organization’s Updated Veklury® (Remdesivir) COVID-19 Treatment Guidelines.” Gilead Company Statements, 2020.
  82. Gilead. “Voluntary Licensing Agreements for Remdesivir,” 2020.
  83. Glenn, Dr. Gregory. “NVX-CoV2373 Vaccine for COVID-19,” 2020.
  84. GlobalData Healthcare. “Manufacturing Disruptions Delay Covid-19 Vaccine Distribution,” January 28, 2021.
  85. Global Health Primer. “Recombinant or Purified Protein Vaccines.” Accessed July 28, 2021.
  86. Gordon, Calvin J., Egor P. Tchesnokov, Emma Woolner, Jason K. Perry, Joy Y. Feng, Danielle P. Porter, and Matthias Götte. “Remdesivir Is a Direct-Acting Antiviral That Inhibits RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase from Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 with High Potency.” Journal of Biological Chemistry 295, no. 20 (2020): 6785–97.
  87. Green, Leigh Ann. “Sputnik Light vs. Sputnik V COVID-19 Vaccine: What Do We Know?,” July 12, 2021.
  88. Griffin, Riley, and Drew Armstrong. “Pfizer Vaccine’s Funding Came From Berlin, Not Washington.” BloombergQuint, October 11, 2020.
  89. Gross, Anna. “AstraZeneca Agrees German Manufacturing Deal to Fill Vaccine Gap.” Financial Times, February 10, 2021.
  90. “GSK to Support Manufacture of Novavax’ COVID-19 Vaccine.” Novavax Press Release, 2021.
  91. Gurgula, Olga, and John Hull. “Compulsory Licensing of Trade Secrets: Ensuring Access to COVID-19 Vaccines via Involuntary Technology Transfer.” SSRN Scholarly Paper. Rochester, NY: Social Science Research Network, June 23, 2021.
  92. Helfand, Carly. “JPM: Gilead’s Veklury, Now Used in Half of Hospitalized U.S. COVID-19 Patients, Delivers Multibillion-Dollar Revenue Bump.” Fierce Pharma, 2020.
  93. “Hepatitis B Foundation: History of Hepatitis B Vaccine.” Accessed June 29, 2021.
  94. Hinton, Denise. “Letter of Authorization: EUA for Baricitinib (Olumiant) in Combination with Remdesivir (Veklury),” November 19, 2020.
  95. “HHS, DOD Collaborate With Johnson & Johnson to Produce Millions of COVID-19 Investigational Vaccine Doses,” May 8, 2020. per cent20 per centE2 per cent80 per cent93 per centC2 per centA0About per cent20News/20-01-2021T12:29/
  96. “Vaccine Types.” Text, April 26, 2021.
  97. Hologic. “From Sequence to Solution: Our Unprecedented Response.” Accessed July 30, 2021.
  98. Hopkins, Jared S. “Pfizer’s Global Covid-19 Vaccine Rollout Depends on Two Expert Staffers.” Wall Street Journal, August 20, 2021, sec. Business.
  99. India Today. “The Science behind China’s Sinovac Vaccine: How Does CoronaVac Fight Covid-19,” February 6, 2021.
  100. “Innovating Production and Manufacture to Meet the Challenge of COVID-19.” Accessed July 18, 2021.
  101. Janiaud, Perrine, Cathrine Axfors, Andreas M. Schmitt, Viktoria Gloy, Fahim Ebrahimi, Matthias Hepprich, Emily R. Smith, et al. “Association of Convalescent Plasma Treatment with Clinical Outcomes in Patients with COVID-19: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.” JAMA - Journal of the American Medical Association 325, no. 12 (2021): 1185–95.
  102. Jeong-yeo, Lim. “SK Bioscience to Contract Manufacture AstraZeneca’s COVID-19 Vaccine in Korea.” The Korea Herald, July 21, 2020.
  103. Jessen Hickman, Ruth. “What Should I Know About Remdesivir?” Verywell Health, May 13, 2020.
  104. Johnson&Johnson. “Johnson & Johnson COVID-19 Vaccine Roll-out to Resume in Europe Following European Medicines Agency (EMA) ReviewEMA Confirms Overall Benefit-Risk Profile Remains Positive | Johnson & Johnson,” April 20, 2021.
  105. Johnson&Johnson. “Johnson & Johnson Single-Shot COVID-19 Vaccine Phase 3 Data Published in New England Journal of Medicine | Johnson & Johnson,” April 21, 2021.
  106. Joyner, Michael J., and Arturo Casadevall. “For Early Testing of Convalescent Plasma, We Were ‘Building the Plane While We Were Flying It.’” Stat News, April 3, 2021.
  107. Kansteiner, Fraiser. “Merck Snares $269M in U.S. Funding to Prep Manufacturing for Johnson & Johnson’s COVID-19 Vaccine.” FiercePharma, March 3, 2021.
  108. Karp, Paul. “Pfizer Warns Australia a Covid Vaccine Patent Waiver Could Harm Supply and Safety.” The Guardian, May 12, 2021.
  109. Keane, Dervila. “Discussing International Vaccine Distribution with Pfizer.” Health Europa (blog), April 16, 2021.
  110. Keown, Alex. “FDA Grants EUA to Combination of Olumiant and Remdesivir in Hospitalized COVID-19 Patients.” BioSpace, November 20, 2020.
  111. Klein, Dr. Nicola. “How Do the COVID-19 MRNA Vaccines Work?” Kaiser Permanente, 2021.
  112. Komaroff, Anthony. “Why Are MRNA Vaccines so Exciting?” Harvard Health, December 10, 2020.
  113. Koplon, Savannah. “Investigational Compound Remdesivir, Developed by UAB and NIH Researchers, Being Used for Treatment of Novel Coronavirus.” UAB News, July 2, 2020.
  114. Kramer, Jillian. “They Spent 12 Years Solving a Scientific Puzzle. It Yielded the First COVID-19 Vaccines.” Science, December 31, 2020.
  115. Krammer, Florian. “SARS-CoV-2 Vaccines in Development.” Nature 586, no. 7830 (October 2020): 516–27.
  116. Kuchler, Hannah. “GSK Seeks to Make up Ground in Vaccine Race.” Financial Times, May 17, 2021.
  117. Kuchler, Hannah. “Novavax Closes in on Covid Triumph after 33 Years of Failure,” 2021.
  118. Kuchler, Hannah, and Leila Abboud. “Why the Three Biggest Vaccine Makers Failed on Covid-19.” Financial Times, February 16, 2021.
  119. Kurth, Reinhard. “Maurice R. Hilleman (1919–2005).” Nature 434, no. 7037 (April 2005): 1083–1083.
  120. Leonard, Matt. “What We Know about Pfizer’s Coronavirus Vaccine Distribution Plan.” Supply Chain Dive, November 11, 2020.
  121. Liu, Angus. “AstraZeneca Takes COVID-19 Vaccine to China with BioKangtai Deal for 200M-Dose Capacity by 2021.” FiercePharma, June 8, 2020.
  122. Liu, Justin K.H. “The History of Monoclonal Antibody Development – Progress, Remaining Challenges and Future Innovations.” Annals of Medicine and Surgery 3, no. 4 (September 11, 2014): 113–16.
  123. Loftus, Peter. “Moderna Vaccine Distributor McKesson Has Shipped 25 Million Doses in U.S.” WSJ, February 2, 2021.
  124. Mallapaty, Smriti. “WHO Approval of Chinese CoronaVac COVID Vaccine Will Be Crucial to Curbing Pandemic.” Nature 594, no. 7862 (June 4, 2021): 161–62.
  125. Malta Independent. “Malta Remains Country with Most per Capita Vaccinations against COVID-19,” July 18, 2021.
  126. Martuscelli, Carlo. “India’s Serum Institute to Make Russia’s Sputnik V Vaccine.” POLITICO, July 13, 2021.
  127. May, Mike. “After COVID-19 Successes, Researchers Push to Develop MRNA Vaccines for Other Diseases.” Nature Medicine, May 31, 2021, 1–3.
  128. McDole, Jaci, and Stephen Ezell. “Ten Ways IP Has Enabled Innovations That Have Helped Sustain the World Through the Pandemic.” Information Technology and Innovation Foundation, April 29, 2021.
  129. McKeever, Vicky. “AstraZeneca Receives $1 Billion in U.S. Funding for Oxford University Coronavirus Vaccine.” CNBC, May 21, 2020.
  130. “Merck Discontinues Development of SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 Vaccine Candidates; Continues Development of Two Investigational Therapeutic Candidates.” Accessed July 16, 2021.
  131. “Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany, and BioNTech Extend Strategic Partnership | Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany.” Accessed July 23, 2021.
  132. Miller, John. “Logistics Firms Reap ‘Vaccine Economy’ Benefits as EU Gears up for Roll-Out.” Reuters, December 24, 2020, sec. Autos.
  133. Mock, Jillian. “The Peculiar 100-Plus-Year History of Convalescent Plasma.” Smithsonian Magazine, 2020.
  134. Moderna. “Moderna and Magenta Partner to Distribute Moderna’s COVID-19 Vaccine and Updated Variant Booster Candidates in United Arab Emirates.” Businesswire, June 15, 2021. per centE2 per cent80 per cent99s-COVID-19-Vaccine-and-Updated-Variant-Booster-Candidates-in-United-Arab-Emirates.
  135. Moderna. “Moderna and Medison Pharma Partner to Commercialize Moderna’s COVID-19 Vaccine Across Central Eastern Europe and Israel | Moderna, Inc.” Moderna, June 7, 2021.
  136. Moderna. “Moderna Announces Additional Capital Investments to Increase Global Manufacturing Capacity for COVID-19 Vaccine.” Moderna, February 24, 2021.
  137. Moderna. “Moderna Announces Additional Investments to Increase Global Supply for COVID-19 Vaccine to up to 3 Billion Doses in 2022.” Moderna, April 29, 2021.
  138. “Moderna and Tabuk Pharmaceuticals Partner to Commercialize Moderna’s COVID-19 Vaccine in Saudi Arabia,” November 6, 2021.
  139. “Moderna Reports First Quarter Fiscal Year 2021 Financial Results and Provides Business Updates,” May 6, 2021.
  140. Moderna. “Moderna’s Work on Our COVID-19 Vaccine | Moderna, Inc.” Moderna, n.d.
  141. Moderna. “Statement by Moderna on Intellectual Property Matters during the COVID-19 Pandemic | Moderna, Inc.” Moderna, October 8, 2020.
  142. “More than 2 Million Doses of AstraZeneca Vaccines Arrive in the Philippines through the COVAX Facility,” August 5, 2021.
  143. Muhammad, Ahmad. “Covid-19: Philippines Signs Deal With AstraZeneca For COVID-19 Vaccine.” My KSA (blog), November 28, 2020.
  144. “Mumtalakat Signs Deal to Set up Sputnik V Vaccine Facility in Bahrain,” March 6, 2021.
  145. Mullard, Asher. “FDA Approves 100th Monoclonal Antibody Product.” Nature Reviews Drug Discovery 20, no. 7 (May 5, 2021): 491–95.
  146. Murray, Simon. “New Life for an Old Therapy: Convalescent Plasma.” Contagion Live, 2020.
  147. Mylan. “Mylan Initiates Supply of Remdesivir in India, Under Brand Name DESREMTM.” Mylan Press Release, 2020.
  148. National Institute of Allery and Infectious Diseases. “Vaccine Types | NIH: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases.” Accessed June 29, 2021.
  149. National Institutes of Health. “Statement from NIH and BARDA on the FDA Emergency Use Authorization of the Moderna COVID-19 Vaccine.” National Institutes of Health (NIH), December 18, 2020.
  150. Neubert, Jonas, and Cornelia Scheitz. “Exploring the Supply Chain of the Pfizer/BioNTech and Moderna COVID-19 Vaccines.” Jonas Neubert .Com Blog (blog), February 7, 2021.
  151. New York Stem Cell Foundation. “The Science of Startups: Drs. Derrick Rossi and Paul Tesar Discuss How Their Biotechs Are Bringing Stem Cell Research to Patients.” Accessed September 1, 2021.
  152. News, Aljazeera. “India Bans Remdesivir Exports as COVID-19 Cases Surge.” Aljazeera News, 2021.
  153. News, Link. “Ferozsons’ Subsidiary Signs License with Gilead to Make and Sell Remedesivir.” Link News, 2020.
  154. NIH. “Final Report Confirms Remdesivir Benefits for COVID-19.” NIH Website, 2020.
  155. NIH. “Early Results Show Benefit of Remdesivir for COVID-19.” NIH Website, 2020.
  156. NIH. “NIH Halts Trial of COVID-19 Convalescent Plasma in Emergency Department Patients with Mild Symptoms.” NIH, 2021.
  157. Nikolskaya, Polina, and Polina Ivanova. “Big Promises, Few Doses: Why Russia’s Struggling to Make Sputnik V Doses.” Reuters, May 14, 2021.
  158. “Novavax Advances Development of Novel COVID-19 Vaccine.” Novavax Press Release, 2020.
  159. “Novavax and Gavi Execute Advance Purchase Agreement for COVID-19 Vaccine for COVAX Facility.” Novavax Press Release, 2021.
  160. “Novavax and Government of Canada Finalize Advance Purchase Agreement for COVID-19 Vaccine.” Novavax Press Release, 2021.
  161. “Novavax and Government of Switzerland Announce Agreement in Principle to Supply COVID-19 Vaccine.” Novavax Press Release, 2021.
  162. “Novavax and SK Bioscience Announce Collaboration for Novavax’ COVID-19 Vaccine Candidate.” Novavax Press Release, 2020.
  163. “Novavax and Takeda Announce Collaboration for Novavax’ COVID-19 Vaccine Candidate in Japan.” Takeda News Release, 2020.
  164. “Novavax and Takeda Finalize License Agreement for Novavax’ COVID-19 Vaccine Candidate in Japan; Takeda Initiates Phase 1/2 Trial in Japan.” Novavax Press Release, n.d.
  165. “Novavax Announces COVID-19 Vaccine Manufacturing Agreement with Serum Institute of India, Increasing Novavax’ Global Production Capacity to Over 2 Billion Doses Annually.” Novavax Press Release, n.d.
  166. “Novavax Announces Memorandum of Understanding to Produce COVID-19 Vaccine Made in Canada.” Novavax Press Release, 2021.
  167. “Novavax Buys Praha Vaccines for Covid-19 Vaccine Manufacturing.” Pharmaceutical Technology, 2020.
  168. “Novavax Covid-19 Pipeline.” Novavax, 2021.
  169. “Novavax Finalizes Agreement with Commonwealth of Australia for 51 Million Doses of COVID-19 Vaccine.” Novavax Press Release, 2021.
  170. O’Day, Daniel. “An Update on COVID-19 from Our Chairman & CEO.” Gilead Stories, 2020.
  171. Office of the Commissioner. “Emergency Use Authorization.” FDA, July 23, 2021.
  172. Office of the Commissioner. “Moderna COVID-19 Vaccine.” FDA, June 25, 2021.
  173. Office of the Commissioner. “Pfizer/BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine.” FDA, June 25, 2021.
  174. Office of the Commissioner. “Coronavirus (COVID-19) Update: FDA Authorizes Additional Monoclonal Antibody for Treatment of COVID-19.” FDA, May 26, 2021.
  175. Ohlson, Jonny. “Plasmid Manufacture Is the Bottleneck of the Genetic Medicine Revolution.” Drug Discovery Today 25, no. 11 (October 16, 202AD): 1891–93.
  176. Our World in Data. “Share of the Population Fully Vaccinated against COVID-19.” Accessed September 1, 2021.
  177. Our World in Data. “Total COVID-19 Tests.” Accessed July 30, 2021.
  178. Packaging Europe. “Softbox Supports Pfizer in Global Cold Chain Distribution of COVID-19 Vaccine,” March 11, 2021.
  179. Pancevski, Bojan, and Jared S. Hopkins. “How Pfizer Partner BioNTech Became a Leader in Coronavirus Vaccine Race.” Wall Street Journal, October 22, 2020, sec. Business.
  180. Pardi, Norbert, Michael J. Hogan, Frederick W. Porter, and Drew Weissman. “MRNA Vaccines - a New Era in Vaccinology.” Nature Reviews. Drug Discovery 17, no. 4 (April 2018): 261–79.
  181. Parekh, Nidhi. “How Does Sinovac’s CoronaVac, A COVID-19 Vaccine Made From Inactivated SARS-CoV-2 Virus, Work?” The Shared Microscope (blog), July 22, 2020.
  182. Paris, Costas, and Jared S. Hopkins. “Pfizer Sets Up Its ‘Biggest Ever’ Vaccination Distribution Campaign.” Wall Street Journal, October 21, 2020, sec. C Suite.
  183. Park, Alice, and Aryn Baker. “Exclusive: Inside the Facilities Making the World’s Most Prevalent COVID-19 Vaccine.” Time, April 19, 2021.
  184. Parsons, Lucy. “UPDATED: Gilead Drops Remdesivir’s Orphan Drug Designation.” PMLive, 2020.
  185. Parsons, Lucy. “GSK, Vir’s Sotrovimab Cuts Hospitalisation and Death Risk by 79 per cent in COVID-19 Outpatients.” Text. PMLive, June 22, 2021.,_virs_sotrovimab_cuts_hospitalisation_and_death_risk_by_79_in_covid-19_outpatients_1371985.
  186. PBR Staff Writer. “Sinovac Signs Agreement with Bio Farma Indonesia for Covid-19 Vaccine Cooperation - Pharmaceutical Business Review.” Accessed June 22, 2021.
  187. Pharma, EVA. “EVA Pharma Granted License to Manufacture and Distribute ‘Remdesivir’ in 127 Countries.” EVA Pharma Press Release, 2020.
  188. Phiddian, Ellen. “South Australian MRNA Vaccines? Are We Any Closer to Getting an Australian Manufacturer of MRNA?” Cosmos Magazine, August 11, 2021.
  189. Philippidis, Alex. “Pfizer, BioNTech Win $1.95B ‘Warp Speed’ Order for COVID-19 Vaccine.” GEN - Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology News (blog), July 22, 2020.
  190. Plotkin, Stanley. “History of Vaccination.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 111, no. 34 (August 26, 2014): 12283–87.
  191. Precision Vaccinations. “CoronaVac COVID-19 Vaccine,” June 19, 2021.
  192. Press, The Associated. “Novavax Vaccine about 90 per cent Effective, Covid Study in US and Mexico Finds.” Syracuse.Com, 2021.
  193. Precision Vaccinations. “Novavax COVID-19 Vaccine,” July 15, 2021.
  194. Pfizer. “Pfizer and BioNTech Achieve First Authorization in the World for a Vaccine to Combat COVID-19 | Pfpfizeruscom,” February 12, 2020.
  195. Pfizer. “Pfizer and BioNTech Celebrate Historic First Authorization in the U.S. of Vaccine to Prevent COVID-19 | Pfpfizeruscom,” November 12, 2020.
  196. “Pfizer and BioNTech to Co-Develop Potential COVID-19 Vaccine,” March 17, 2020.
  197. Pharma Advancement. “Valor Glass Packaging Selected to Accelerate Delivery of COVID-19 Vaccines,” June 15, 2020.
  198. PPTA. “Plasma Protein Therapies,” n.d.
  199. “Production of Sputnik V Launched in Argentina,” April 20, 2021.
  200. Rajalakshmi, Niranjana. “Russia’s ‘Sputnik V’ Vaccine Treads Uncharted Territory, and Could Backfire.” The Wire Science (blog), August 25, 2020.
  201. Ramgarhia, Priti. “Novavax Extends SK Bioscience Partnership For Supply Of 40M COVID-19 Vaccine Doses.” Nasdaq, 2021.
  202. Raper, Vivienne, and PhD. “Plasmid Manufacturer Scales Up Production Capacity to Serve New Therapeutics.” GEN - Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology News (blog), August 11, 2020.
  203. “RDIF and LAXISAM Agree to Supply up to 35 Million Doses of Sputnik V Vaccine to Uzbekistan,” September 25, 2020.
  204. “RDIF and Pharco Agree to Supply 25 Million Doses of Sputnik V Vaccine to Egypt,” September 30, 2020.
  205. Rees, Victoria. “Mechanism of Action Revealed for Remdesivir, Potential Coronavirus Drug.” Drug Target Review, 2020.
  206. ReliefWeb. “UNICEF Signs COVID-19 Vaccine Supply Agreement with AstraZeneca - World,” February 26, 2021.
  207. “Repurposed Antiviral Drugs for Covid-19 — Interim WHO Solidarity Trial Results.” New England Journal of Medicine 384, no. 6 (2021): 497–511.
  208. Reuters. “J&J Unsure of Meeting June COVID-19 Vaccine Supply Target for EU.” Reuters, May 27, 2021.
  209. Reuters. “India’s Hetero Prices Experimental COVID-19 Drug Remdesivir at $71 per 100 Mg Vial.” Reuters, 2020.
  210. Reuters. “AstraZeneca Partners with Halix to Manufacture COVID-19 Vaccine in Netherlands.” Reuters, December 11, 2020.
  211. Reuters. “Turkey to Produce Russia’s Sputnik V COVID-19 Vaccine - Statement.” Reuters, April 26, 2021.
  212. Reuters. “Venezuela to Purchase and Manufacture Russia’s EpiVacCorona Vaccine.” Reuters, June 5, 2021.
  213. Reuters. “Venezuela to Purchase and Manufacture Russia’s EpiVacCorona Vaccine.” Reuters, June 5, 2021.
  214. Reuters Staff. “Russia to Send Nepal up to 25 Million Sputnik V Vaccine Doses: RIA.” Reuters, January 12, 2021, sec. Healthcare & Pharma.
  215. Ritchie, Hannah, Esteban Ortiz-Ospina, Diana Beltekian, Edouard Mathieu, Joe Hasell, Bobbie Macdonald, Charlie Giattino, Cameron Appel, Lucas Rodés-Guirao, and Max Roser. “Coronavirus Pandemic (COVID-19).” Our World in Data, March 5, 2020.
  216. Roche. “Containing and Conquering Global Health Threats.” Accessed July 30, 2021.
  217. Roche, Elizabeth. “Why India Can’t Stop Exports of the Vax for Long.” mint, May 23, 2021.
  218. Roos, Dave. “How a New Vaccine Was Developed in Record Time in the 1960s.” HISTORY, June 22, 2020.
  219. Rowland, Christopher. “Advocates Want NIH to Use Its Moderna Vaccine Patent to Push for Global Access.” MSN, March 25, 2021.
  220. Rowland, Christopher, Emily Rauhala, and Miriam Berger. “Drug Companies Defend Vaccine Monopolies in Face of Global Outcry.” Washington Post, March 20, 2021.
  221. Roy, Tanay Kumar. “Beximco Pharma: Agreement for AstraZeneca’s Covid-19 Vaccine Offers Prospects.” Tellimer, August 31, 2020.
  222. RTTNews. “Dr. Reddy’s Labouratories Enters Licensing Deal With Gilead Sciences For Remdesivir.” Nasdaq, 2020.
  223. Rutherford, Gillian. “Study Finds Remdesivir Effective against a Key Enzyme of Coronavirus That Causes COVID-19.” Science Daily, 2020.
  224. Salles, Andre. “More than a Decade of Virus Research at the APS Laid the Groundwork for More Effective COVID-19 Vaccines,” December 18, 2020.
  225. Saltzman, Jonathan. “Beth Israel Is Working with Johnson & Johnson on a Coronavirus Vaccine - The Boston Globe.”, December 3, 2020.
  226. Saltzman, Jonathan. “A Beth Israel Researcher Helped Create a COVID-19 Vaccine That Awaits Approval. It Could Be a ‘Game Changer’ - The Boston Globe.”, January 16, 2021.
  227. Sanders, B., M. Koldijk, and H. Schuitemaker. “Chapter 2 Inactivated Viral Vaccines,” 2017.
  228. Saudi 24 News. “Dmitriev: We Look Forward to a Partnership with Saudi Arabia on ‘Sputnik,’” November 18, 2020.
  229. Scams Breaking. “China Vaccine Maker Sinovac Says Doubles Production Capacity - ET HealthWorld,” April 2, 2021.
  230. Schimelpfening, Nancy. “Many Early Vaccine Trials Show Promise. Most Still Fail. Here’s Why.” Healthline, July 30, 2020.
  231. Schraer, Rachel. “Russia’s Sputnik V Vaccine Has 92 per cent Efficacy in Trial.” BBC News, February 2, 2021, sec. Health.
  232. Schuster-Bruce, Dr Catherine. “China’s Sinovac Vaccine Is 50.7 per cent Effective against COVID-19, Just Reaching the Threshold to Be a Vaccine Worth Using, a Major Trial Showed.” Business Insider, December 4, 2021.
  233. Schwitzer, Gary. “What the Public Didn’t Hear about the NIH Remdesivir Trial,” 2020.
  234. Scollay, Roland. “Gene Therapy. A Brief Overview of the Past, Present, and Future.” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 953 (December 1, 2001): 26–30.
  235. Secard, Ryan. “As J&J Vaccine Production Stumbles, Merck Offers Help.” IndustryWeek, March 3, 2021.
  236. Serhan, Yasmeen. “The Vaccine-Booster Mistake.” The Atlantic, August 26, 2021.
  237. Shapiro, Marissa. “Center for Technology Transfer & Commercialization Breaks Records in Rapid Facilitation of COVID-19 Related Agreements.” News, July 9, 2020.
  238. Shapiro, Marissa. “Vanderbilt Researchers Take Leadership Role in COVID-19 Vaccine Development.” News, December 18, 2020.
  239. Sheryl, Authors, Gay Stolberg, Sharon Lafraniere, and Chris Hamby. “Official Warned That Covid Vaccine Plant Had to Be ’ Monitored Closely ’.,” 2021.
  240. Shores, Daniel. “Breaking Down Moderna’s COVID-19 Patent Pledge: Why Did They Do It?” IPWatchdog.Com | Patents & Patent Law (blog), November 11, 2020.
  241. Simmons-Duffin, Selena. “Why Does Pfizer’s COVID-19 Vaccine Need To Be Kept Colder Than Antarctica?” National Public Radio, 2020.
  242. “Slovakia Sells Most Sputnik V Vaccine Doses Back to Russia,” February 7, 2021.
  243. “‘Solidarity’ Clinical Trial for COVID-19 Treatments.” Accessed July 16, 2021.
  244. “South Korean Company to Begin Producing Russia’s Sputnik V in May, Reports Say,” April 20, 2021.
  245. Stanton, Dan. “Touchlight Looks to Triple DNA Manufacturing Capacity - BioProcess Insider.” BioProcess International (blog), March 18, 2021.
  247. Supply Chain Movement. “Tracing Is Crucial in COVID-19 Vaccine Distribution -,” January 14, 2021.
  248. Takeda Pharmaceutical. “Takeda Announces Approval of Moderna’s COVID-19 Vaccine in Japan,” May 21, 2021.
  249. Thiagarajan, Kamala. “What Do We Know about India’s Covaxin Vaccine?” BMJ (Clinical Research Ed.) 373 (April 20, 2021): n997.
  250. The History of Vaccines. “Human Papillomavirus Infection | History of Vaccines.” Accessed June 29, 2021.
  251. The Japan Times. “Japanese Drugmaker Starts AstraZeneca Vaccine Production,” March 12, 2021.
  252. Thomas, Clare E., Anja Ehrhardt, and Mark A. Kay. “Progress and Problems with the Use of Viral Vectors for Gene Therapy.” Nature Reviews Genetics 4, no. 5 (May 2003): 346–58.
  253. Times, Hindustan. “Jubilant Life Sciences Limited Ties up with Gilead for Remdesivir.” Hindustan Times, 2020.
  254. Today, Business. “Syngene Targets Supplying 500,000 Remdesivir Vials in India amid COVID-19 Surge.” Business Today, 2021.
  255. Trefis Team, and Great Speculations. “How Is Moderna’s Vaccine Production Scaling Up?” Forbes. Accessed July 18, 2021.
  256. Triggle, Nick. “Covid: Under-30s Offered Alternative to Oxford/AstraZeneca Jab.” BBC News, April 7, 2021, sec. Health.
  257. UK HealthCentre. “Inactivated Vaccines Advantages & Disadvantages of Inactivated Vaccines.” Accessed June 24, 2021.
  258. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. “Coronavirus Disease 2019 Testing Basics.” FDA, April 16, 2021.
  259. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. “In Vitro Diagnostics EUAs - Antigen Diagnostic Tests for SARS-CoV-2.” FDA, July 29, 2021.
  260. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. “In Vitro Diagnostics EUAs - Molecular Diagnostic Tests for SARS-CoV-2.” FDA, July 29, 2021.
  261. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. “In Vitro Diagnostics EUAs - Serology and Other Adaptive Immune Response Tests for SARS-CoV-2.” FDA, July 29, 2021.
  262. “US Patent Application for LIMIT SIZE LIPID NANOPARTICLES AND RELATED METHODS Patent Application (Application #20210023556 Issued January 28, 2021) - Justia Patents Search,” January 10, 2020.
  263. Unicef UK. “UNICEF Signs Supply Agreement for Sputnik V COVID-19 Vaccine,” May 27, 2021.
  264. University of Chicago. “How Moderna Helped Launch a Vaccine Revolution.” SciTechDaily (blog), May 5, 2021.
  265. Vardi, Nathan. “Moderna’s Mysterious Coronavirus Vaccine Delivery System.” Forbes. Accessed September 1, 2021.
  266. VOA News. “US to Pay Johnson and Johnson $1 Billion for COVID-19 Vaccine | Voice of America - English.” VOA, May 8, 2020.
  267. Wadman, Meredith. “Will a Small, Long-Shot U.S. Company End up Producing the Best Coronavirus Vaccine?” Science Magazine, 2020.
  268. Wee, Sui-Lee, and Ernesto Londoño. “A Second Chinese Coronavirus Vaccine Is Said to Be Effective.” The New York Times, January 14, 2021, sec. Business.
  269. Weiland, Noah, Sharon LaFraniere, and Carl Zimmer. “Johnson & Johnson Vaccinations Paused After Rare Clotting Cases Emerge.” The New York Times, April 13, 2021, sec. U.S.
  270. “What Are Protein Subunit Vaccines and How Could They Be Used against COVID-19?” Accessed July 28, 2021.
  271. WHO | Regional Office for Africa. “What Is COVID-19 Vaccine Efficacy?” Accessed July 16, 2021.
  272. Williams, Dede. “BioNTech/Pfizer Raise 2021 Vaccine Production Target | CHEManager,” January 4, 2021.
  273. Wise, Jeff. “The Story of One Dose.” Intelligencer, April 5, 2021.
  274. World Health Organization. “WHO Recommendation of Sinovac COVID-19 Vaccine (Vero Cell [Inactivated]) – CoronaVac.” WHO - Prequalification of Medical Products (IVDs, Medicines, Vaccines and Immunization Devices, Vector Control), June 1, 2021.
  275. World Health Organisation. “The Different Types of COVID-19 Vaccines,” December 1, 2021.
  276. Wu, Huizhong, and Daria Litvinova. “Russia Turns to China to Make Sputnik Shots to Meet Demand.” AP NEWS, May 3, 2021.
  277. Yan, Sophia. “China’s Sinovac Coronavirus Vaccine Trial Suspended in Brazil after Participant Dies.” MSN, October 11, 2020.
  278. Zimmer, Carl. “Is Moderna in Operation Warp Speed?” The New York Times, November 16, 2020, sec. Health.
  279. Zimmer, Carl, Jonathan Corum, and Sui-Lee Wee. “Coronavirus Vaccine Tracker.” The New York Times, sec. Science. Accessed July 3, 2021.
  280. Our analysis benefitted from interviews with senior executives from the biopharma industry whose companies were directly involved in developing and commercializing new COVID-19 vaccines and treatments. We interviewed:
  281. Syed Ahmed and Susmita Mukherjee, Techinvention Lifecare Pvt. Ltd, June 16, 2021
  282. Bryan Zielinski and Matt Pugmire, Pfizer Inc., June 25, 2021
  283. Gavin Lawson and Hemal Shah, Gilead Sciences, Inc., June 25, 2021
  284. Kathrin Körner, Arno Hartmann, and Vivien Tannoch-Magin, Merck KGaA, June 28, 2021
  285. Rene Luginbuehl and Corey Salsberg, Novartis International AG, June 30 and July 1, 2021
  286. William Krovatin, Merck & Co., Inc., July 8, 2021
  287. Jacob Oyloe, AstraZeneca plc., July 9, 2021
  288. Robert DeBarardine and Paul Higgins, Johnson & Johnson, July 9, 2021